Riley

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File:Riley Brooklands 1930.jpg
Riley Brooklands 1930
File:Riley Brooklands 1930 2.jpg
Riley Brooklands 1930
File:Riley Gamecock 2-Seater 1932.jpg
Riley Gamecock 2-Seater 1932
File:Riley Lynx Tourer 1934.jpg
Riley Lynx Tourer 1934
File:Riley Lincock Fixedhead Coupe 1934.jpg
Riley Lincock Fixedhead Coupé 1934
File:Riley MPH 2-Seater Sports 1934.jpg
Riley MPH 2-Seater Sports 1934
File:Riley 12 4 Sprite 2-Seater Sports 1934.jpg
Heavily modified Riley 12/4 Sprite 2-Seater Sports 1934
File:Riley 12 4 Kestrel Saloon 1935 2.jpg
Riley 12/4 Kestrel Saloon 1935
File:Riley 15 6 Adelphi Six Light Saloon 1935.jpg
Riley 15/6 Adelphi Six Light Saloon 1935
File:Riley 12 4 Sprite 2-Seater Sports 1936.jpg
Riley 12/4 Sprite 2-Seater Sports 1936
File:Riley 12 4 Lynx Sports Tourer 1937.jpg
Riley 12/4 Lynx Sports Tourer 1937
File:Riley 12 4 1,5-Litre Special 1937.jpg
Riley 12/4 1½-Litre Special 1937
File:Riley Continental 1937.jpg
Riley 12/4 Continental 1937
File:Riley 056.jpg
1951 Riley RMA decorated for use as a wedding car

Riley was a British motorcar and bicycle manufacturer from 1890. The company became part of the Nuffield Organisation in 1938 and was later merged into British Leyland: late in 1969 British Leyland announced their discontinuance of Riley production, although 1969 was a difficult year for the UK auto industry and so a number of cars from the company's inventory are likely to have been first registered only in 1970.<ref name=Motor196911/>

Today, the Riley trademark is owned by BMW.

Contents

Riley Cycle Company

Riley began as the Bonnick Cycle Company of Coventry, England. During the pedal cycle craze that swept Britain at the end of the 19th century, in 1890, William Riley Jr. purchased the company and in 1896 renamed it the Riley Cycle Company.<ref name=Motor196911/> Later, cycle gear maker Sturmey Archer was added to the portfolio. Riley's younger son, Percy, left school in the same year and soon began to dabble in automobiles. He built his first car at 16, in 1898, secretly, because his father did not approve. It featured the first mechanically operated inlet valve. By 1899, Percy Riley moved from producing motorcycles to his first prototype four-wheeled quadricycle. Little is known about Percy Riley's first "motor-car". It is, however, well attested that the engine featured mechanically operated cylinder valves at a time when other engines depended on the vacuum effect of the descending piston to suck the inlet valve(s) open. That was demonstrated some years later when Benz developed and patented a mechanically operated inlet valve process of their own but were unable to collect royalties on their system from British companies; the courts were persuaded that the system used by British auto-makers was based the one pioneered by Percy, which had comfortably anticipated equivalent developments in Germany.<ref name=Motor196911/> In 1900, Riley sold a single three-wheeled automobile. Meanwhile the elder of the Riley brothers, Victor Riley, although supportive of his brother's embryonic motor-car enterprise, devoted his energies to the core bicycle business.<ref name=Motor196911/>

Company founder William Riley remained resolutely opposed to diverting the resources of his bicycle business into motor cars, and in 1902 three of his sons, Victor, Percy and younger brother Alan Riley pooled resources, borrowed a necessary balancing amount from their mother and in 1903 established the separate Riley Engine Company, also in Coventry.<ref name=Motor196911/> A few years later the other two Riley brothers, Stanley and Cecil, having left school joined their elder brothers in the business.<ref name=Motor196911/> At first, the Riley Engine Company simply supplied engines for Riley motorcycles and also to Singer, a newly emerging motor cycle manufacturer in the area,<ref name=Motor196911/> but the Riley Engine Company company soon began to focus on four-wheeled automobiles. Their Vee-Twin Tourer prototype, produced in 1905, can be considered the first proper Riley car. The Engine Company expanded the next year. William Riley reversed his former opposition to his sons' preference for motorised vehicles and Riley Cycle halted motorcycle production in 1907 to focus on automobiles.<ref name=Motor196911/> Bicycle production also ceased in 1911.

In 1912, the Riley Cycle Company changed its name to Riley (Coventry) Limited as William Riley focused it on becoming a wire-spoked wheel supplier for the burgeoning motor industry, the detachable wheel having been invented (and patented) by Percy and distributed to over 180 motor manufacturers, and by 1912 the father's business had also dropped automobile manufacture in order to concentrate capacity and resources on the wheels. Exploitation of this new and rapidly expanding lucrative business sector made commercial sense for William Riley, but the abandonment of his motor-bicycle and then of his automobile business which had been the principal customer for his sons' Riley Engine Company enforced a rethink on the Engine Company.<ref name=Motor196911/>

Riley Motor Manufacturing

In early 1913, Percy was joined by three of his brothers (Victor, Stanley, and Allan) in a new business focused on manufacturing entire automobiles. This Riley Motor Manufacturing Company was located near Percy's Riley Engine Company. The first new model, the 17/30, was introduced at the London Motor Show that year. Soon afterwards, Stanley Riley founded yet another company, the Nero Engine Company, to produce his own 4-cylinder 10 hp (7.5 kW) car. Riley also began manufacturing aeroplane engines and became a key supplier in Britain's buildup for World War I.

In 1918, after the war, the Riley companies were restructured. Nero joined Riley (Coventry) as the sole producer of automobiles. Riley Motor Manufacturing came under the control of Allan Riley to become Midland Motor Bodies, a coachbuilder for Riley. Riley Engine Company continued under Percy as the engine supplier. At this time, Riley's blue diamond badge, designed by Harry Rush, also appeared. The motto was "As old as the industry, as modern as the hour."

Riley grew rapidly through the 1920s and 1930s. The Riley Engine Company produced 4-, 6-, and 8-cylinder engines, while Midland built more than a dozen different bodies. Riley models at this time included:

  • Saloons: Adelphi, Continental, Deauville, Falcon, Kestrel, Mentone, Merlin, Monaco, Stelvio, Victor
  • Coupes: Ascot, Lincock
  • Tourers: Alpine, Lynx, Gamecock
  • Sports: Brooklands, Imp, MPH, Sprite
  • Limousines: Edinburgh, Winchester

Introduced in 1926 in a humble but innovatively designed fabric bodied saloon, Percy Riley's ground-breaking Riley 9 engine- a small capacity, high revving unit- was ahead of its time in many respects. Having hemispherical combustion chambers and inclined overhead valves, it has been called the most significant engine development of the 1920s. With twin camshafts set high in the cylinder block and valves operated by short pushrods, it provided power and efficiency without the servicing complexity of an OHC (overhead camshaft) layout. It soon attracted the attention of tuners and builders of 'specials' intended for sporting purposes. One of the most noteworthy was engineer/driver J.G. Parry-Thomas, who developed the Riley 'Brooklands' model in his workshops at the famous banked Surrey circuit. Officially backed by the Riley company, the Brooklands, along with later developments and variations such as the 'Ulster' Imp, MPH, and Sprite, proved some of the most successful works and privateer racing cars of the late 1920s and early 1930s. At Le Mans in 1934, Rileys finished 2nd, 3rd, 5th, 6th and 12th, winning the Rudge Whitworth Cup,the Team Prize, two class awards, and the Ladies' Prize. Rileys also distinguished themselves at the Ulster TT, at Brooklands itself, and at smaller events like hill climbs, while providing a platform for the success of motorsports' first women racing drivers such as Kay Petre, Dorothy Champney and Joan Richmond.<ref>http://www.nma.gov.au/collections-search/results?search=adv&ref=coll&collname=Joan+Richmond+collection</ref> Another noted engineer/driver, Freddie Dixon, was responsible for extensive improvements to engine and chassis tuning, creating a number of 'specials' that exploited the basic Riley design still further, and contributed greatly to its remarkable success on the track.

For series production, the engine configuration was extended into a larger 12 horsepower '4', six cylinder and even V8 versions, powering an increasingly bewildering range of touring and sports cars. The soundness and longevity of the engine design is illustrated by Mike Hawthorn's early racing success after WW2 in pre-war Rileys, in particular his father's Sprite. But by about 1936 the company had overextended, with too many models and few common parts, and the emergence of Jaguar at Coventry was a direct challenge. Disagreements between the Riley brothers about the future direction of the enterprise grew. Victor Riley had set up a new ultra-luxury concern, Autovia, to produce a V8 saloon and limousine to compete with Rolls-Royce. By contrast, Percy, however, did not favour an entry into the luxury market, and the Riley Engine Company had been renamed PR Motors to be a high-volume supplier of engines and components. Although the rest of the Riley companies would go on to become part of Nuffield and then BMC, PR Motors remained independent. After the death of Percy Riley in 1941, the company began producing transmission components and still exists today as PRM Marine Limited (formally Newage Transmissions) based in Aldermans Green, Coventry. Percy's widow Norah ran the company for many years and was Britain's businesswoman of the year in 1960.

Nuffield Organisation

By 1937, Riley began to look to other manufacturers for partnerships. A contract with Briggs Motor Bodies of Dagenham to provide all-steel bodies for a cheaper, more mass-market saloon had already turned sour, with dozens of unsold bodies littering the factory. It had withdrawn from works racing after its most successful year, 1934, although it continued to supply engines for the ERA, a voiturette (Formula 2) racing car based on the supercharged 6-cylinder 'White Riley', developed by ERA founder Raymond Mays in the mid-thirties. BMW of Munich, Germany was interested in expanding its range into England. But the Riley brothers were more interested in a larger British concern, and looked to Triumph Motor Company, also of Coventry, as a natural fit. In February, 1938, all negotiations collapsed as Riley (Coventry) and Autovia went into receivership.

Both companies were purchased by Lord Nuffield for £143,000 and operated by Victor Riley as Riley (Coventry) Successors. It was quickly sold to Nuffield's Morris Motor Company for £1, with the combination coming to be called the Nuffield Organisation.

Nuffield took quick measures to firm up the company. Autovia was no more, with just 35 cars having been produced. Riley refocused on the 4-cylinder market with two engines: A 1.5 litre 12 hp engine and the "Big Four", a 2.5 litre 16 hp unit (The hp figures are RAC Rating, and bear no relationship to bhp or kW). Only a few bodies were produced, and some components were shared with Morris for economies of scale.

After World War II, the restarted Riley Motors took up the old engines in new models, based in concept on the 1936-8 'Continental'. The RMA used the 1.5 litre engine, while the RMB got the Big Four. The RM line of vehicles, sold under the "Magnificent Motoring" tag line, were to be the company's high point. They featured a front independent suspension and steering system inspired by the Citroën Traction Avant. Their flowing lines were particularly well-balanced, marrying pre-war 'coachbuilt' elegance to more modern features, such as headlamps faired-in to the front wings.

Victor Riley was removed by Nuffield in 1947, and the Coventry works were shut down as production was consolidated with MG at Abingdon. Nuffield's marques were to be organised in a similar way to those of General Motors: Morris was to be the value line, MG offered performance, and Wolseley was to be the luxury marque. But with the luxury marque, and sporty/luxurious Riley also fighting for the top position, the range was crowded and confused.

British Motor Corporation

The confusion became critical in 1952 with the merger of Nuffield and Austin as the British Motor Corporation. Now, Riley was positioned between MG and Wolseley and most Riley models were, like those, little more than badge-engineered versions of Austin/Morris designs.

Other BMC Rileys included the Pathfinder with Riley's 2.5 litre four which replaced the RM line. With a slightly restyled body and a different engine it was later also sold as the Wolseley 6/90. The Riley lost its distinct (though subtle) differences in 1958 and the 1958 6/90 was available badge engineered as a Riley Two-Point-Six. Although this was the only postwar 6-cylinder Riley, its C-Series engine was actually less-powerful than the Riley Big Four that it replaced. This was to be the last large Riley, with the model dropped in May 1959 and the company refocusing on the under-2 litre segment.

Riley and Wolseley were linked in small cars as well. Launched in 1957, the Riley One-Point-Five and Wolseley 1500 were reworked Morris Minors. They shared their exteriors, but the Riley was marketed as the more performance-oriented option, having an uprated engine, twin S.U. carburetters and a close-ratio gearbox. With its good handling, compact, sports-saloon styling and well-appointed interior, the One-Point-Five quite successfully recaptured the character of the 1930s light saloons.

At the top of the Riley line for April 1959 was the new Riley 4/Sixty-Eight saloon. Again, it was merely a badge-engineered version of other BMC models. The steering was perhaps the worst feature of the car, being Austin-derived cam and peg rather than the rack and pinion of the One-Point-Five. Overall, it could not provide the sharp and positive drive associated with previous Rileys, being based on the humble Austin Cambridge and Morris Oxford. Sharing many features with the similarly upmarket MG Magnette Mark III and Wolseley 15/60, it was the most luxurious of the versions, which were all comfortable and spacious, and attractively styled by Farina. The car was refreshed, along with its siblings, in 1961 and rebadged the 4/Seventy-Two.

The early 1960s also saw the introduction of the Mini-based Riley Elf. Again, a Wolseley model (the Hornet) was introduced simultaneously. This time, the Riley and Wolseley versions were differentiated visually and identical mechanically.

The final model of the BMC era was the Kestrel 1100/1300, based on the Austin/Morris 1100/1300 saloon. This also had stablemates in Wolseley and MG versions. Following objections from diehard Riley enthusiasts, the Kestrel name was dropped for the last facelift in 1968, the Riley 1300.

Between 1966 and 1968 a series of mergers took place in the British motor industry, ultimately creating the British Leyland Motor Corporation, whose management embarked on a programme of rationalisation- in which the Riley marque was an early casualty. A BLMC press release dated 9 July 1969 announced "today that all Riley models produced at British Leyland's Austin-Morris division will be discontinued".<ref name=Motor196911>{{#invoke:Citation/CS1|citation |CitationClass=journal }}</ref>

In spite of the decline of the marque under BMC, surviving well-preserved examples of the period are now considered desirable classics, the Riley 'face' and badge lending a distinctive character. The needs of enthusiasts are met by the Riley Motor Club, the original factory Club founded in 1925.

The future

Riley production ended with the 1960s, and the marque became dormant. The last Riley badged car was produced in 1969. For a short while, following BMW's purchase of the Rover Group in 1994, there were brief hopes that Riley might be revived, the then Chairman Bernd Pischetsrieder being an enthusiast for many of the defunct British marques. After BMW's divestment of the MG Rover Group in 2000, and Pischetsrieder's removal, however, these hopes faded; though the rights to the Triumph and Riley marques, along with Mini/MINI were retained by BMW.

In 2007, William Riley, who claims to be a descendant of the Riley family, although this has been disputed,<ref name="ft-letter">{{#invoke:citation/CS1|citation |CitationClass=news }}</ref> formed MG Sports and Racing Europe Ltd. This company acquired assets relating to the MG XPower SV sportscar from PricewaterhouseCoopers, the administrators of the defunct MG Rover Group, and intended to continue production of the model as the MG XPower WR.<ref name="bm_20080408">{{#invoke:citation/CS1|citation |CitationClass=news }}</ref>

In September 2010 the motor magazine 'Autocar' reported that BMW were considering the revival of the Riley brand in the form of a variant of the redesigned MINI to be introduced in 2013. [1] This would most likely be a luxury version taking its cues from the 'Elf' of 1962-9, with a 'notchback' (booted) body, and the interior trimmed in wood and leather in the manner of earlier Rileys. No sources were quoted, however, and until an appropriate announcement is made by the Company, such information must be regarded as speculative.

List of Riley vehicles

Pre-World War I

  • 1907–1911 Riley 9
  • 1907–1907 Riley 12
  • 1909–1914 Riley 10
  • 1908–1914 Riley 12/18
  • 1915–1916 Riley 10

Inter-war years

Post-war

References

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External links

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